The Cold Water Supply

From the rising main stoptap, the main cold supply pipe rises up through the house (which is why this stoptap is so named). Installation of a stop is a job for a qualified plumber. A branch pipe is always connected to the rising main to supply the kitchen tiles cold tap with a pure supply of water for drinking and cooking purposes. There may also be branches off this pipe serving a washing machine or dishwasher.
Indirect systems In the majority of homes the rising main then continues upwards to supply a cold water storage tank in the loft or in an upstairs cupboard. The flow of water into this tank is controlled by a ball valve. As water is drawn off, the valve’s float arm drops which opens up the valve to admit more water. The valve closes again when the tank is Filled to the correct level.
This tank then supplies cold water to the rest of the house. Normally there will be two feed pipes running from near the base of the tank; one will supply all the cold taps (except the kitchen) and also WC cisterns. The other will supply cold water to the hot water cylinder. Both pipes should be Fitted with an on/off control called a gate valve, which allows the feed to be isolated if necessary.
If the house has a conventional ‘wet’ central heating system with water-filled radiators, there will be a second, smaller tank in the loft which is supplied by a pipe which branches off the rising main and again which is fitted with a ball valve. This is the heating system’s feed-and-expansion tank. Its purpose is to accommodate the expansion in the system’s water content as it heats up, and also to replace any losses from the system should they occur. There should be a stoptap on its
WATER SUPPLY BY-LAWS The water supply to every home is subject to the various provisions of the water supply bylaws. These exist to prevent waste, undue consumption, misuse or contamination of the water supply. Under the by-laws, you are obliged by law to give five working days’ notice to your water authority if you propose to install or alter (as opposed to repair or replace):
• a bidet
• a flushing cistern
• a tap to which a hose may be connected
• any fitting through which
contamination by back-siphonage could occur
In Ireland you must give notice if you propose to install or alter any water fitting.
Notice must also be given if you intend to bury a supply pipe underground or embed it in a solid bathroom wall or floor tiles
Plumbing, Heating and Waste Systems
branch supply pipe to enable you to turn off its water supply if necessary.
Direct systems – Some homes have a direct cold water supply, with branches to bathroom taps and WC cisterns taken directly from the rising main. Hot water may be supplied by a multi-point water heater, by a conventional hot cylinder containing an immersion heater, or by a gas or electric storage water heater. Alternatively, there may be a full-scale central heating system which also supplies hot water via a hot cylinder.
Direct plumbing systems may be easier and cheaper to install, but most water authorities prefer indirect systems (and nowadays may not allow direct ones to be
installed). One of the main reasons for this is that indirect systems make it very difficult for the mains supply to be contaminated by back-siphonage of dirty water if there is a drop in mains water pressure. This subject is very much to the fore in the current water supply by-laws, and which will be mentioned at intervals throughout this book. Indirect systems are also convenient for the householder, because they guarantee a supply of stored water in the event of an interruption in the mains supply, and they are also quieter in operation than mains-fed systems.

Should our business use group buying channels?

Group buying started in 1977 when the Home Shopping Network was founded after 112 electric can openers were sold on a Florida radio station programme.
A group buying channel can be useful if your business:
• Wants to move excess or old stock;
• If an SEO company wants to rank a website in Dublin.
• Is a venue such as a hotel or spa and wants to fill ‘quiet times’;
Group buying is fraught with challenges and has created difficulties for numerous small businesses. These include the cupcake bakery Need a Cake, which offered a 75% discount on 12 cupcakes, which normally cost $30, and underestimated the response, resulting in an extra 8,500 customers and a €15,000 loss, or Posies Cafe, which lost nearly $8,000 with its Groupon campaign and had to use personal savings to cover payroll and rent.
You should only use group buying if you:
• Have the time to manage the process;
• Can get your staff to support the deal;
• Don’t need instant cashflow as you often have to wait for some weeks or until the deal is completely finished (which could take some months) before you get your income;
• Are good at negotiating with commission-based sales people who work for the group buying companies.
Critical factors that affect group buying are:
Customer retention: Group buying customers often are deal-hunters, so they go from place to place depending on a deal, and are not always seeking a long-term solution;
• Local access: The offer must be locally-based to achieve conversion rates – for example, ‘Dublin spa offers 2 for 1 on Monday’;
• Consumer trust: People are naturally suspicious if an offer looks too good to be true. Be specific about your terms and conditions and ensure the customer has read these before they pay.
To explore group buying further, look at, and to explore which of your competitors have signed up to sell offers in this way.

Strength Training – Going Strong After 50

You already know that strength training is the best way to build larger and stronger muscles. You have undoubtedly seen bodybuilders on magazine covers and heard football commentators report on the amount of weight key players can bench press. You may also be aware that lifting weights is an important component of athletic conditioning programs. In fact, you may have done some strength training as a sport team participant.
You may think, however, that only young or athletic individuals should use strength­ training equipment. Indeed, many people tell us they feel that way. They pass by the strength ­training facility and wish that they were in good enough shape to use the exercise equipment. But they need to understand that you don’t get strong in order to do strength ­training exercises—you do strength­ training exercises to get strong.
Then again, you may be a seasoned strength trainer who has read muscle ­building magazines and accumulated dozens of barbell plates. Although you know a lot about strength­ training exercises, you should consider the needs of an older musculo skeletal system that is still responsive, yet more susceptible to overuse effects and training injuries. The exercise programs we’ll present in this book provide both a safe and time­ efficient approach to strength fitness. In fact, many committed strength­ training exercisers have switched to our program because it produces excellent results, requires less training time, and carries a low risk of injury.
You may have heard that strength training is bad for your heart and raises your blood pressure, but that is most unlikely. In fact, research conducted at Johns Hopkins University reveals that sensible strength ­training exercises are beneficial for cardiac rehabilitation patients and studies at the University of California show that properly performed strength training may actually reduce resting blood pressure.
Perhaps you are already overweight and fear that strength training will make you even heavier. Not so. Study after study has shown that strength personal ­trainer exercises simultaneously increase muscle and decrease fat, resulting in a lower body weight and a healthier body composition.
Of course, it could be that you are simply too old to benefit from strength training . . . but don’t count on it. Research with 60­, 70­, and 80­year­old men and women has demonstrated many physical improvements from a basic program of strength­ training exercises. In fact, the Journal of the American Medical Association has reported significant gains in muscle strength and physical function in 90­ year­ olds who do strength training exercises! As Dr. William Evans, one of the leading researchers on exercise and aging says, ”You’re never too old to exercise, but you’re probably too old not to exercise.”
Most likely, what you haven’t heard about strength training is far more important and accurate than what you have heard. For starters, strength training can prevent the otherwise inevitable loss of muscle and reduction in metabolic rate that accompany the aging process. But what if you have already experienced significant muscle loss and metabolic slow­down? Good news! No matter what your age, you can replace muscle tissue and speed up your metabolism through regular strength training.

The Evolution of Senior Care

Throughout history, families, both immediate and extended, have
borne the primary responsibility for taking care of their elderly, just
as they do today. Elder care institutions and organizations beyond
the home appear to have been rare before modern times.

elderly woman

Still, a few advanced societies through the ages may have recognized
a community responsibility for the elderly. One of those societies was
the Byzantine Empire. Weak and ill older citizens
were sometimes cared for in special infirmaries, called gerocomeia,
according to several researchers at National Athens University
in Greece. In the twelfth century, Emperor John II Comnenus
established the most famous of the gerocomeia in the Constantinople
monastery and hospital of the Pantocrator. In their heyday,
these forerunners of the modern nursing home operated all over
the empire, mostly in or near the monasteries. They were highly
esteemed, and the governor of the institution seems to have been
a person of real importance.

The evolution of community participation in elder care was
more complicated in many parts of the world and not such an
honored undertaking. As an example, for several centuries in
England, seniors were subject to the country’s Poor Laws, which
often left them with “a stark choice between destitution and the
workhouse.” Indeed, according to the 1901 census, more than
208,000 people were residents of workhouses in England and

German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck pioneered the recognition
of seniors as a group worthy of special protection by instituting
an old-age social insurance program in 1889. Other developed
nations followed. For instance, the 1935 passage in the United
States of the Social Security Act addressed the pressing issue of
long-term economic security for the country’s seniors—a population
whom President Franklin Roosevelt said previously may have
“spent their remaining years within the walls of a poorhouse.”
Thus, the Social Security Act may have played a major role in the
evolution in the United States of the proprietary nursing home.

Tips And Tricks On How To Easily Find The Best Stairlift Repair Contractor In The City

The greater part of individuals will discover that they have to employ a temporary worker eventually. Be extra careful since a group of local stairlift company contractors might take shortcuts, particularly if you want your work to be done rapidly and inexpensively. Take after the means underneath keeping in mind the end goal to streamline the way toward locating a dependable temporary worker.

Your Dublin community will have its own set of building codes and regulations that must be followed. Ask the contractual workers you’re meeting questions concerning these controls with a particular end goal to discover their level of learning. In the event that the contractual worker is present on the rules, then it’s going to be a great deal less demanding to finish a vocation rapidly. Defy the legally binding laborer with some made-up situations with conceivable difficulties and decide how he would respond to all one.

stair way chair lift

You have every right to expect a prospective stairlift service contractor to have the ability to provide an accurate cost estimate in advance of starting any work on your project. Once the contractual worker has been given a nitty gritty portrayal of the employment, they should have the capacity to make a strong evaluation. Should things go south, a verbal estimate will have little meaning so be sure to have one in writing before accepting any work. After supplying your mobility service provider with all the necessary info about the project, he should be in a position to provide you with an estimate and if he claims that he can’t then you should not accept his work.

Although you might be suspicious of a very low quote coming in from a licensed stairlift service contractor, it doesn’t always mean that he will do a sub-standard job. First, determine the cost of the materials necessary to complete the job and compare them to the cost of materials given on the bid. Do not forget to also calculate in the expenditures for labor work. Hire the stair lift contractor only if the two estimates, his and yours, are in reasonable alignment.

The way toward finding a great contractual worker is one that cannot be hurried. Check with friends, family, and co-workers for recommendations. You should also consider becoming a part of renovation conventions in order to search for qualified stairlift service contractors. Having the capacity to locate a good contractual worker will depend on upon what number of meetings you have directed.

In order for a project to be successful, you need to communicate your expectations clearly and speak with your local stairlift service contractor regularly. Handle problems calmly and quickly by practicing truthful and assertive communication. Clear communication is necessary in building working relationships that are successful. To protect yourself from potential legal disaster, take detailed notes whenever you speak with your local contractor.

Tips On Locating The Best Attic Specialist Contractor In Dublin

It is good to have a rough estimate of the cost of a given project because not all residential attic improvement contractors are faithful when it comes to costs. Although every contractor will claim to have the ability to complete your project, not all can. Choosing and hiring the perfect attic builder can make or break your project. Use our suggestions to assist you make the right choice.

The lowest bidder for a contract should not be ignored as he is capable of delivering high quality work just like the other bidders. You should first check the market price of the materials and afterwards compare with what the each residential attic improvement contractor has quoted. Also the labor costs ought to be taken into account while counting costs. You can assign the legal agreement if the pricing is reasonable.

freshly plastered attic conversion

The best way to address any issues you have with a residential attic improvement contractor is to find a quiet, private place where others cannot see you. A private place to speak is really the easiest way to have open, candor filled meetings with your local contractor. If the issue is serious enough to delay the completion of the project, you may need to pause the project until you have the meeting. Before the beginning of the work, ensure you have a detailed contract, and bring that contract whenever you are addressing any issue.

Look at other candidate credentials before deciding on the service provider to work with. Hire a residential attic conversions contractor only if he or she shows you proof from earlier jobs that they can complete the work within the set time and budget. Asking for frequent progress reports from the contractor you choose will help make sure the work is completed to your complete satisfaction. If your service provider just isn’t new in the business, he should offer you a visual slideshow of the job done and references for you to check it out on your own.

Your local loft specialists must receive all job specifications before he can accept the job and provide you recommendations on how to go forth. Give your local contractor opportunities to ask questions about your project or to confirm a clause in your contractual agreement before you both sign. The very best way to ensure that your job gets done successfully is to communicate often and openly with your local attic builder. Avoiding misunderstandings requires continuous communication, which is highly recommended.